Eczema is a group of inflamed skin conditions that result in chronic itchy rashes. About 15 million people in the U.S. suffer from some form of eczema, including 10-20 percent of all infants. Symptoms vary from person to person but often include dry, red, itchy patches on the skin which break out in rashes when scratched.
Objects and conditions that trigger itchy eczema outbreaks may include rough or coarse materials touching the skin, excessive heat or sweating, soaps, detergents, disinfectants, fruit and meat juices, dust mites, animal saliva and danders, upper respiratory infections and stress.
Treatment involves the restriction of scratching, use of moisturizing lotions or creams, cold compresses and nonprescription anti-inflammatory corticosteroid creams and ointments. If this proves insufficient, physicians may prescribe corticosteroid medication, antibiotics to combat infection, or sedative antihistamines. Phototherapy is a common procedure that uses light to reduce rashes. For severe cases, drugs such as cyclosporine A may be recommended.
Hyperpigmentation of the skin is caused when the cells that make melanin, which are responsible for the skin's pigmentation, become damaged or unhealthy. Skin that has too much melanin is referred to as being hyperpigmented. Hyperpigmentation is often caused by exposure to ultraviolet light, taking the hormones estrogen and progesterone and the aging process.
There are a number of effective methods available for treating hyperpigmentation of the skin. Some of the most successful approaches include bleaching, chemical peels, microdermabrasion, laser treatments and cryotherapy.
Hair loss, or alopecia, is a common condition which may be a consequence of natural aging, a side effect of medication, or a manifestation of a health disorder. It can result in total baldness, thinning of the hair, or patchy bald spots and may be confined to the scalp or affect other areas of the body. Hair loss may be temporary or permanent, depending on its cause.
Some of the causes of hair loss include: Autoimmune diseases, such as alopecia areata, lupus or polycystic ovary syndrome; certain skin disorders, such as eczema or psoriasis; traumatic stress, Chemotherapy or radiation therapy, fungal infection, or certain medications.
Treatment for hair loss is usually based on the cause of the condition. When hair loss results from a fungal infection, it may be treated with anti-fungal medication. Hair loss that results from cancer treatment is usually temporary.
For other types of hair loss, one of the following treatments may be considered:
- Hair transplant surgery, hair plugs, scalp reduction
- Over-the-counter medications, such as Rogaine or Nizoral
- External laser comb
- Hair-stimulating treatments
For some patients, wigs or hairpieces may be useful in creating an attractive appearance and reducing self-consciousness about hair loss.
Bacterial infection of the skin, also called cellulitis, occurs when a break in the skin allows bacteria that normally live on the surface to enter the body, causing inflammation, redness, pain, warmth, fever/chills, fatigue and muscle aches. The break itself may arise from an animal or insect bite or sting, after some surgeries, with the use of certain drugs, or from skin wounds due to injury, diabetic or ischemic ulcers, or if the patient has peripheral vascular disease. Left untreated, bacterial infection can lead to tissue death (gangrene), sepsis, generalized infection, shock, meningitis (if cellulitis is on the face) and lymphangitis (inflammation of the lymph vessels). Treatment may require hospitalization, oral antibiotics or analgesics to control pain.
Fungal infections of the skin are caused by microscopic organisms that live on the hair, nails (onychomycosis), mouth (angular cheilitis/oral thrush) and outer skin layers. They are quite common; the fungal infection cutaneous candidiasis, for example, which occurs in warm, moist crevices of the body, is the usual cause of diaper rash and vaginal yeast infections. Fungal infections are most likely to occur in people with diabetes, who are obese, or who take antibiotics or oral contraceptives. They are treatable (sometimes with difficulty) but often recur. Treatments include topical and systemic antifungal medications.
Skin cancer biopsy and treatment including malignant melanoma, cyst and lipoma removal, skin tag excision, cosmetic mole removal and genital and perianal wart surgery are a few of the many procedures we perform. In addition, we do surgery of the nail and nail bed (such as ingrown nails, pincer nails, and pigmented lesions of the nail bed), repair of torn ear lobes, minor oral surgery, and wart removal.